How modular can your monolith go? Part 7 - no such thing as a modular monolith?

architecting   modular monolith  

New public workshop: Architecting for fast, sustainable flow - enabling DevOps and Team Topologies thru architecture. Learn more and enroll.

This article is the seventh in a series of articles about modular monoliths. The other articles are:

Quite some time ago, I wrote about how there’s no such thing as a microservice. I explained how the term ‘microservices’ is a shorthand for ‘microservice architecture’, which is an architectural style that structures the application as a loosely coupled set consisting of two or more components (a.k.a. services). As a result, a service cannot exist in isolation; it must be part of a larger whole. In this article, I explain why there’s no such thing as a modular monolith and why the term ‘domain-oriented component architecture’ might be a better choice.

What’s the monolithic architecture?

The monolithic architecture is an architectural style that structures the application as a single component, such as a single WAR file or executable JAR.

The component implements all of the application’s subdomains/bounded contexts.

The component’s internal architecture is a black box

From the perspective of the application (or system) architecture, each of its constituent components is a black box. A component’s details are hidden behind its API. Given, therefore, that the term ‘monolith’ is shorthand for ‘monolithic architecture’, it follows that there’s no such thing as a modular monolith(ic architecture).

Modular monolith => modular components

When we use the term ‘modular monolith’, what we are really describing is the internal architecture of a component. The sole component of a monolithic architecture is likely to be large so modularity is especially important. However, there’s no reason why the services within a microservice architecture should not also be modular. In particular, some services might consist of multiple subdomains/bounded contexts owned by different teams. The problems that the ‘modular monolith’ pattern solves are not necessarily unique to the monolithic architecture. Consequently, perhaps a better term is ‘modular component’.

Modular components => domain-oriented components

Now that we have looked at why, perhaps, ‘modular component’ is a more accurate that ‘module monolith’, let’s now look at why the adjective ‘modular’ is not the best choice for the architectural style that we are trying to describe.

A traditional monolith can have a well-defined structure

Monolithic applications are often described as big balls of mud. To quote Foote and Yoder, the authors of that pattern, such a monolith is a “haphazardly structured, sprawling, sloppy, duct-tape and bailing wire, spaghetti code jungle.” However, there’s no reason for a monolithic application to be a big ball of mud. It could have a well-defined structure consisting of layers, which themselves are comprised of modules.

For example, here’s the FTGO monolith:

This monolith is comprised of four layers: main, web, domain and persistence. The web, domain and persistence layers consist of domain-specific modules. The lack of modularity is not the problem.

Real problem: The layers and modules are not aligned with the subdomains/bounded contexts

One actual problem is that the layers and modules are not aligned with application’s subdomains/bounded contexts. For example, it’s common for the layers to be technical: web, domain and persistence. As a result, a subdomain/bounded context will typically span multiple layers and modules.

Real problem: The layers and modules are not aligned with the teams

Another actual problem is that the layers and modules are not aligned with the teams that own the subdomains/bounded contexts. As a result, teams need to make changes across multiple layers and modules to implement a feature. It’s an architecture that reflects a traditional siloed organization rather than a modern organization one that’s structured using Team Topologies.

Big idea: organize a component around the domains

The big idea with the modular monolith (component) pattern is that its top-level organizing principle are the domains/bounded contexts. For example:

In this architecture, the monolith consists of modules, such as customers and orders. Each module, in turn, consists of layers, such as web, domain and persistence. As a result, the application architecture and the teams are aligned.

Better name: domain-oriented component architecture?

Arguably, the term domain-oriented component or even domain-oriented component architecture is more accurate than modular monolith (component).

What do you think?

Need help with accelerating software delivery?

I’m available to help your organization improve agility and competitiveness through better software architecture: training workshops, architecture reviews, etc.

Learn more about how I can help

architecting   modular monolith  

Copyright © 2024 Chris Richardson • All rights reserved • Supported by Kong.

About is brought to you by Chris Richardson. Experienced software architect, author of POJOs in Action, the creator of the original, and the author of Microservices patterns.

New workshop: Architecting for fast, sustainable flow

Enabling DevOps and Team Topologies thru architecture

DevOps and Team topologies are vital for delivering the fast flow of changes that modern businesses need.

But they are insufficient. You also need an application architecture that supports fast, sustainable flow.

Learn more and register for my June 2024 online workshops....


I help organizations improve agility and competitiveness through better software architecture.

Learn more about my consulting engagements, and training workshops.

LEARN about microservices

Chris offers numerous other resources for learning the microservice architecture.

Get the book: Microservices Patterns

Read Chris Richardson's book:

Example microservices applications

Want to see an example? Check out Chris Richardson's example applications. See code

Virtual bootcamp: Distributed data patterns in a microservice architecture

My virtual bootcamp, distributed data patterns in a microservice architecture, is now open for enrollment!

It covers the key distributed data management patterns including Saga, API Composition, and CQRS.

It consists of video lectures, code labs, and a weekly ask-me-anything video conference repeated in multiple timezones.

The regular price is $395/person but use coupon MJXJDTBJ to sign up for $95 (valid until May 22nd, 2024). There are deeper discounts for buying multiple seats.

Learn more

Learn how to create a service template and microservice chassis

Take a look at my Manning LiveProject that teaches you how to develop a service template and microservice chassis.

Signup for the newsletter

BUILD microservices

Ready to start using the microservice architecture?

Consulting services

Engage Chris to create a microservices adoption roadmap and help you define your microservice architecture,

The Eventuate platform

Use the platform to tackle distributed data management challenges in your microservices architecture.

Eventuate is Chris's latest startup. It makes it easy to use the Saga pattern to manage transactions and the CQRS pattern to implement queries.

Join the microservices google group